(in certain isolated areas it survived until the 12th century, see Tsakonia and Maniots) The majority of modern Hellenic polytheist organizations view their religious traditions as either "revivalist" or "reconstructionist", though most modern individual adherents exist somewhere on a reconstructionist to … Merely worshiping the Gods does not make one a Hellene, because if it were so then superstitious Wiccans would be considered Hellenic simply for their lipservice to the Gods. What are their core beliefs? The term paganus, coming from Latin pagus, “district,” also relates to the idea of nationhood. Enter your email address to follow Hellenic Faith and receive notifications of new posts by email. However, it is not just a system of orthopraxic devotion and supplication of the divine, but rather is an entire everyday lived ethos and system of morality which encompasses a person’s entire lifestyle; a modus vivendi et operandi, or “way of living and operating.” The ethical convictions of Hellenes are inspired by ancient Graeco-Roman virtues such as reciprocity, hospitality, and moderation. Many of these decided to assume for appearance’ sake the name of Christian in order to avert the immediate threat; but it was not long before they were for the most part caught at their libations and sacrifices” (Procopius 1935, 137-141). ⓘ Hellenism (religion) Hellenism, the Hellenic ethnic religion, also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism, or Olympianism, comprises various religious movements which revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices, … Toleration of the pagan Greek religious practices was encouraged. 26). Gods, Goddesses and Who Knows What! This is a clear understanding from the ancient world, as the divine Emperor Julian tells us: “though my family [the Constantinian dynasty] is Thracian, [I] am a Greek in my habits,” or in other words, logos displaces genos (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, II 501). University of California Press, 2012. Rather, one becomes part of an ethnos through work. Another Hellene was Michael Tarchaniota Marullus (c. 1458 – 1500 ACE), a Hellene either from Sparta or Constantinople who became a mercenary in medieval Italy, who privately translated many ancient Hellenic works such as the Orphic Hymns, and wrote the Hymni naturales, devotional hymns dedicated to the immortal Gods. Elm, Susanna. The Greek region of Laconia in particular resisted conversion for an extended period of time and the last public Hellenes were the Maniots in 875 ACE, though they continued to practice their religion until the 10th-11th centuries, which was noted by Constantine VII’s in his work De Administrando Imperio. Homer only uses the term Hellene twice in his works (Homer, Iliad, II.2.530; II.2.653). Thoukydides tells us that “before the Trojan war there is no indication of any common action in Hellas, nor indeed of the universal prevalence of the name; on the contrary, before the time of Hellen, son of Deucalion [i.e., one of the only humans, along with his wife Pyrrhua, to survive the deluge which ended of the Age of Bronze], no such appellation existed, but the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the Pelasgian. Broadly speaking, Hellenism is a polytheistic religion that understands the Gods are unchanging, unbegotten, eternal, and not in space. It also is not “religion without rules.” And it especially is not a “religion of one’s blood” that is to be confused with the chauvinistic and brainless concept of “ethnicism.” Ethnic/Pagan religions such as Hellenism are said to be concerned with an ethnos, yes, but this is not to be confused with “race” or “blood,” as an ethnos has nothing to do with one’s blood or anything remotely similar to contemporary social constructs invented by European imperialists such as “race.” “Race” is merely a social construct based on physical attributes – and Hellenes are not of a single type: there are Hellenes who came from Egyptian backgrounds, Hellenes who came of Syrian backgrounds, Hellenes who came from Latin backgrounds, and so on. In looking at much of the listed sources for this article, it would seem the phrases Hellenismos, Hellenism, the Hellenic tradition, the Hellenic religion, and Hellenic Polytheism are all used interchangeably to refer to the religion, and are synonymous. Greenhalgh, P. A. L.; Eliopoulos, Edward (1985). The works of emperor Julian. This additionally means that they forfeit the claim to their sacred sites, which currently lack the legal rights of a religion and are thus often deemed secular and state property. Late Byzantine History of Emperors describes the devout and pious Pagan, Emperor Diokletianos, as “Roman Emperor, Hellene and idolater” (Iadevaia 2005, 9). Accessed April 21, 2018. http://www.caldridge.net/2016/12/where-is-olympus-greatest-mysteries.html. Answer: Hellenism is the term used to describe the influence of Greek culture on the peoples the Greek and Roman Empires conquered or interacted with. That mountain is merely one of at least nineteen other peaks in the ancient world also named Olympos, which were each named after the real Mount Olympos because of their awe-inspiring height, not vice versa. The religious sphere expanded to include new gods such as the Greco-Egyptian Serapis, ... (History of Hellenism), coined the term Hellenistic to refer to and define the period when Greek culture spread in the non-Greek world after Alexander's conquest. The History of the Peloponnesian War. Another, perhaps more mystical approach, builds off of the previous example. Participation in an ethnos is defined by having acceptance in a community and participating in the life of that community. ), Terrestrial Daimons/Genii (e.g., Daktyloi, Satyrs, Nymphs such as Nereids and Dryads, etc. This can be seen in much of colonial history, where by defining religion in a way that was incompatible with certain religious traditions (e.g., defining that it must have a holy book and a prophet) colonialists were able to levy themselves on those without “real religion,” as seen with the conquest of the Americas. There was much continuity in Hellenistic religion: people continued to worship the Greek gods and to practise the same rites as in Classical Greece. Here the Selli dwelt and those who were formerly called Graeci and now Hellenes.” As such, the Selloi became the Helloi, though again no one is absolutely certain. One does not become part of a ethnos simply by birth. One cannot be considered a Hellene simply because they were born into a family that was Hellenic by genos, nor simply because they adopted the religion divorced of its ethos. Hellenism’s universality is further made evident by Orpheus, a sage who lived during the Age of the Heroes who is the primary and most foundational theologian of the Hellenic religion. Following Droysen, Hellenistic and related terms, e.g. Another notable example is ancient Athens, which Herodotos tells us had actually began as a pre-Hellenic Pelasgian settlement that had become Hellenized through a process of paideia, where its inhabitants learned the Hellenic language (Herodotos Histories, I.57). One acquires culture through a process of civilizing education called paideia (Elm 2012, 378-379), where one Hellenizes themselves and thus adopt the ethos, or “character,” of Hellenism (e.g., language, history, philosophy, etc). So those two total at +450% piety, not considering other modifiers. Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ εθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism, refers to various religious movements that revive ancient Greek religious practices, publicly, emerging since the 1990s.. Hellenism, the Hellenic ethnic religion also known as Hellenismos, Hellenic polytheism, Dodekatheism or Olympianism, consists of various religious movements that restore or to reconstruct ancient Greek religious practice, which appeared publicly since 1990-ies. Participating within a ethnos does not designate a people of common descent (genos), but a mind-set (logoi) (Libanios, Or. Here, the myth of Deukalion and Pyrrha tell us of how following the great deluge, they repopulate the land by casting stones which become people, the first being Hellen, the eponymous King of the Hellenes who would come to be the progenitor of the Greek peoples. Hellenism must therefore, by definition, be simultaneously both a universal religion and a ethnikos. This is because though Pagan traditions such as Hellenism are ethnikos because they originated with a group of people, they are at the same time katholikos, or universal, because anyone can join them via adopting the ethos. Please How many denominations it has. Accessed June 26, 2018. http://www.hellenicgods.org/exclusivism-and-hellenismos. Wright. (1989). The Odyssey. The term Hellenism was first coined in its proper religious sense by the blessed Emperor Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus to refer to the general entirety of Graeco-Roman tradition as it was fundamentally derived from the Greeks, or Hellenes. Rather, to be a practitioner of Hellenism, one must embrace the Hellenic ethos via a process of education where one Hellenizes themselves and ultimately participates in the ethnos. As such, Hellenism is self-revelatory. And that’s just where Olympos sits: the heavens. One G-d The belief in one G-d is the first of the Ten Commandments. Overall, as Herodotos tells us, though religion is part of Hellenism, Hellenism is more than a religion. Hellenism proper is Minoan-Mykenaian in its origins, and it came to be the practiced not only by those who were born Greek by genos, but also by other peoples that came to shaped and/or influenced by the Hellenic ethos and, ultimately, adopted the Hellenic ethnos. Deep into Mani: Journey to the Southern Tip of Greece. But many Jewish people recognized Hellenism as antithetical to the Bible. With its divine kernel preserved, Hellenism resurfaced in the public sphere in Mediterranean countries such as Greece and Italy during the 1980s and 1990s. And because the Gods are real, living Beings, with agencies of Their own, They are not bound to any one culture and can not be subject to cultural appropriation, as They can manifest Themselves to any peoples or particular persons that They please. Firstly, because it allows atheists (i.e., monotheists) to be the one who define what is and what isn’t a religion, which can have enormous ramifications, both against Hellenes and non-Hellenes alike. Upon the Jews' return from exile in Babylon, they endeavored to protect their national identity by following the law closely. The majority of modern historians agree that the religion practiced by the ancient Greeks had been extinguished by the 9th century AD at the latest and that there is little to no evidence that it survived past the Middle Ages. It was not till Hellen [son of Deucalion] and his sons grew strong in Phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name of Hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all. Born long after the Trojan War, he nowhere calls all of them by that name, nor indeed any of them except the followers of Achilles from Phthiotis, who were the original Hellenes: in his poems they are called Danaans, Argives, and Achaeans” (Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War, 1.1.3). The place in which they live is waterless and inaccessible, but has olives from which they gain some consolation.”. Hellenic (disambiguation) Hellenic studies; Hellenization, the spread of Greek culture to other peoples Many of the values celebrated by modern Hellenists such moderation and self-control are also values considered important by Western culture in general. They are the Gods of all people and have dominion over everything” (HellenicGods.org 2010, THE ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION IS A UNIVERSAL RELIGION). This is “the providence of the King of Gods and men, the design and solution of Zeus for all his creatures, not just for a few” (HellenicGods.org 2010, THE ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION IS A UNIVERSAL RELIGION). It is expected to be completed by (at the very least) the year 2021 ACE. The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature. Any freethinking and intelligent person who is observing the Kosmos with an analytical and imaginative eye is capable of deriving the essential principles of it. Today Hellenism sees a large revival movement which largely grew out of the various folk traditions which have survived since ancient antiquity. Philhellenes are the admirers of Hellenism and Hellenes (Greek culture and Greeks). However, despite the colossal effort to dismantle and exterminate our religion, it continued to persist. The … In K. A. Dimadis. Accessed January 18, 2018. http://www.hellenicgods.org/. Church of Hellenes", Hellenion, Inc. Zeus is not merely some lowly regional deity of the peoples of Southern Europe, but rather He is the King of Heaven, and thus He is the King of the All, who rules everything in our Kosmos, from the lowest pits of the Earth to the highest vaults of the heavens. As such, Hellenism is self-revelatory. Its sense of ownership over the “Classics” is often challenged either by particular deluded “academics” from Western Europeans or equally foolish political organizations, who frequently feel a misled necessity to stress some kind of “inferiority” of present-day Greeks to their classical forebears, or even wholly erase their identity. Homer. Hellenism (neoclassicism), an aesthetic movement in 18th and 19th century England and Germany; Hellenism (religion), the syncretistic religion of the Hellenistic period, re-emerging publicly since the late 1980s; See also. As such, we understand that Hellenism is a religion, which at the same time as an orthopraxic tradition, is not merely confined to a temple in an artificial divorce from secular life. For Orpheus’ teachings tell us of the great compassion of Zeus and of how He devised a plan to deliver us from our anguish by sending His divine son Dionysos to deliver us from our misery. The reality is that by sharing their religion, those who are Hellenic by genos glorify and ennoble themselves, occupying a unique and venerable position. There exists economic strife in the country, and its heritage is often subject to attack from all sides thanks to a kind of internal colonialism within Europe. ISBN 0-571-13524-2. The best proof of this is furnished by Homer. Secondly, it has consequences at a legal level, because it means Hellenes cannot ask for the rights of a religion, which including the right to construct temples, enroll their children into a Hellenic education (paideia, a pillar of the Hellenic religion) or conduct Hellenic marriages, which many countries in the world, even Greece until recently, still do not grant them. ), The Einalic/Dii Mari, or Sea deities (e.g., Poseidon, Coventina, etc. London: Heinemann etc., 1962. Furthermore, the Gods are not bound by any mortal society and belong to no one, as They are not mere culture nor objects– They are real, living and eternal Beings who have agencies of Their own, and thus cannot be reduced to mere “trinkets” that belong to a culture, as this stupidly substitutes human judgment over that of the Gods and would thus commit the sin of hubris. Therefore, according to the divine Homer, while the Gods rule over our kosmos and all things inhabiting them, Their abode isn’t a place in our mundane realm (Aldridge 2016). Hellenismos is the term used to describe the modern equivalent of the traditional Greek religion. And today, the greatest of the Hellenic teachers living at this very moment in Athens, tell us that Hellenism is for everyone, as it is the religion of the kosmos, declare that “the Gods do not only dwell in the mountains of Greece. However, this process of non-Greeks becoming Hellenes truly flourished on a global scale during what contemporary historians call the Hellenistic period, an era which began following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. This website is under constant construction. It is not to be used synonymously with eclectic New Age religions. Hellenismos oder hellenischer Polytheismus (griechisch Ελληνική εθνική θρησκεία), auch Dodekatheismus, nach den zwölf Göttern der klassischen griechischen Religion, ist eine neue religiöse Bewegung, die sich an der traditionellen Religion des klassischen Griechenlands orientiert, nach antiken und wissenschaftlichen Quellen rekonstruiert und an die moderne Welt angepasst ist. Hellenism was not a dead religion in 867 and it shouldn't be in game (for Laconia). Many who held dear our sacred tradition were eventually were forced to abandon them, either for implicit or practical reasons such as rising in society, or for explicit reasons such as violence. As such, Sell probably led to “Hellene” through regular sound change. It is not vague, undefined “earth-based” spirituality. Although publicly Hellenism was seemingly defeated, it continued on for several more centuries in two forms. 2010. Someone who is not born in Hellas and not born by Hellenic parents, but has a Hellenic education and thus has thoroughly Hellenized themselves, can be considered “more Hellenic” than someone who had the two prior but was deprived of the latter. νική Ομάδα Ε", "Ύπατο Συμβούλιο των Ελλήνων Εθνικών", "Hellenism Officially Recognized as a Religion in Greece", "There's a reason why Zeus is king of the gods and Hermes isn't - The House of Vines", "The organizational and operating structure of the YSEE", "Who we are - Hellenic Religion. It’s given notice by Agamemnon in his prayer to Zeus: “Zeus, most glorious, supreme, that dwells in the sky [aither], and rides upon the storm-cloud” (Homer Iliad, II, 412 ff). Radical Platonism in Byzantium. Hellenism can and will manifest in different forms in different regions and adopt itself effortlessly to the religious customs of the area where it becomes absorbed— so long as they do not conflict with Hellenism— though with a consistent Hellenic tone at the foundation. And to those of Greek genos who feel threatened by this great diversity of peoples coming once again into Hellenism, let it be known that “those of us who are not of your blood, but who love the Gods, are also Philhellenes, friends of the Greeks, a new generation like those of the great war for independence, those like Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley” (HellenicGods.org 2010, THE ANCIENT GREEK RELIGION IS A UNIVERSAL RELIGION). Overland Park (Kan.): Digireads.com Publishing, 2009. Everything on this website is subject to change. As such, religions of “the tribes/nations” were deemed ethnikos (“ethnic,” but this does not have the same connotation as the English word), as pertaining to a tribe or nation (not to be confused with the contemporary notion of a nation-state), in opposition to Christian katholikos, “catholic” or “universal.” In the Latin West, the term Paganus, or Pagan, was coined in the religious sense by Christians in Late Antiquity as a translation of ethnikos. It is primarily a devotional or votive religion, based on the exchange of gifts between the divine and mortals typically through correctly performed sacrificial rituals. The Greatest Mysteries.” Chris Aldridge’s Blog and Website. A Hellenic community’s acceptance of you as part of the ethnos is based Herodotos’ categorization of what makes up the Hellenikon (Herodotos Histories, 8.144.2): The more of these you have, the more of a Hellene one can be considered. https://www.academia.edu/1999944/The_making_of_an_ethnic_group_the_Romaioi_in_12th-13th_century. This notion goes back to ancient Athens as Isokrates tells us: “Athens has made it so that the name of the Greeks designates not a people [genos] but a mind-set, and those are called Greeks who share in our culture rather than our common stock [physis]” (Isokrates: Panegyric 50). There is only one place we know of where there are no winds, rains, snows nor clouds, but where the all-ruling sun is still present, bestowing radiance upon the Gods to perfect them, and this place is far beyond our mundane realm. If you undergo a process of paideia and this cultivates into a conversion to Hellenism, where you participate in the Hellenic community, then you are a Hellene. the imitation or adoption of ancient Greek language, thought, customs, art, etc. As such, Hellenism and its practices are applicable to all peoples, and this is one of the reasons for the tradition’s heavenly majesty. Question: "What is Hellenism, and how did it influence the early church?" One theory is that the ancient Hellenes originally called themselves Selloi, and that through time the, initial sigma in Proto-Greek became aspirated in ancient Greek, turning /s/ into /h/ in initial positions. Hellenism is the most common term used to describe the continued practice of polytheistic Ancient Greek religious beliefs; it stems from the name given to Roman Emperor Julian’s revival of Greek religion, but it can also refer to Ancient Greek religion and culture in general. Imagines. In short, Zeus used this element for binding the whole together and arranging the heavens. Leaders of the movement claimed in 2005 that there are as many as 2,000 adherents to the Hellenic tra The precise etymology of Hellenism is uncertain, and mostly speculative. Dodekatheism originated in and is practiced in Greece and in other countries. The Greeks believed in a multitude of gods. Siniossoglou, Niketas. This identity of Hellene meaning Graeco-Roman polytheist continued into the reign of the much later Constantine VII (r. 913-959 ACE), who in his De Administrando Imperio makes explicit reference to the last public Hellenes, the Maniots (Greenhalgh & Eliopoulos 1985, 22), in such a manner: “Be it known that the inhabitants of Castle Maina are not from the race of aforesaid Slavs (Melingoi and Ezeritai dwelling on the Taygetus) but from the older Romaioi, who up to the present time are termed Hellenes by the local inhabitants on account of their being in olden times idolaters and worshippers of idols like the ancient Greeks, and who were baptized and became Christians in the reign of the glorious Basil. As such, when engaging with Zeus, or any Hellenic manifestation of divinity, They should be worshiped in distinctly Hellenic cultural systems of worship, which includes sacred rites, methods, attire, and traditions. Rather, one must embrace the Hellenic ethos to truly become a practitioner of Hellenism. Here, , where the word Hellene comes from the prefixes, About the Authors, Mission Statement & Principles, Julian the Theurgist & Julian the Chaldean, exchange of gifts between the divine and mortals, http://www.caldridge.net/2016/12/where-is-olympus-greatest-mysteries.html, https://www.academia.edu/1999944/The_making_of_an_ethnic_group_the_Romaioi_in_12th-13th_century, http://www.hellenicgods.org/exclusivism-and-hellenismos, Update on the Website + Stance Against Hindutva, Strengthening your Connection with the Gods, The Ouranic/Dii Superi, or Olympian deities (e.g., Zeus-Helios, Hera, etc. The renown Hellenic philosopher Gemistos Plethon (c. 1355 – 1452/1454 ACE) founded a Platonic school in the Peloponnesian city of Mystras which is said to have had students (themselves sometimes persecuted for being Hellenes) often praying to statues of Hellenic deities, and wrote a piece, the Nómoi, which called for the reorganization of the Byzantine Empire and the return to Hellenism. It is thus very straightforward to understand that Hellenism was the world’s first universal religion. Hellenism. One name that He is also referred to by is Hypatos, “the highest,” for He is not only merely the highest God of the Hellenic religion, but in truth He is the highest and most supreme God in the entire Kosmos. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Hellenes worship a large number of deities, which includes: Those who practice Hellenism are called Hellenes, which in this context is not the same as citizens from the contemporary Christian nation in Greece who likewise call themselves Hellenes but partake in a “Christian Hellenism” invented by the Romiosyni (i.e., Greek Christians) 200 years ago. Rather, Hellenes in the context of the Hellenism this page discusses is the ethnos that had been born in ancient antiquity and survived through the centuries, from ancient Hellas through Byzantium and has survived all the way to the modern day. Homer writes that the real location of Olympos is bathed by King Helios with His radiant and benevolent light (Homer Odyssey, XII, 380), which the divine Julian writes shines upon and perfects the Gods’ Ousia, or Being (Flavius Claudius Iulianus, I 372-373). Michael Psellos (c. 1017/1018 – 1078/1096 ACE) was accused of, and likely implicit in, being secretly a Hellene. Hellenism (Greek: Ellinismós, Latin: Hellenismus), also less frequently called Olympianism (Greek: Olympianismós, Latin: Olympianismus) or Dodekatheism (Greek: Dodekatheïsmós, Latin: Duodecimdeismus), is the traditional polytheistic and animistic orthopraxic religion, lifestyle, aesthetics, and ethos of the ancient Graeco-Roman world, and is the indigenous religion of the common Greek … Furthermore, it cannot be confused with a secular notion of “culture” because one can be Hellenic in ancestry, speak Greek and Latin, and undertake every Hellenic cultural aspect – but if you convert to a religion incompatible with Hellenism you are not a Hellene anymore, as demonstrated by medieval “Greek Christians” who took to identifying themselves as “Rhomaioi” (i.e., Roman, Byzantine) instead of “Hellene” once they converted away from Hellenism and into Christianity (Howatson 1989, 264), rejecting the cultural force of Hellenism and explicitly classifying Hellenes as a distinct people with a separate identity (Malatras 2011, 425-427). And an additional Hellene was a certain Julius Pomponius Laetus, also named Pomponio Leto (c. 1428 – 9 June 1498), who started an academy that aimed to restore the traditional Hellenic religion of Rome, whose effort was violently shut down by Pope Paul II in 1468. Hellenism is more than a religion, but religion is part of it. Hellenistic and Hellenized culture interacted and mingled with local cultures throughout the region and created new, diverse traditions. Hellenism (Greek: Ἑλληνισμός, Ἑllēnismós), the Hellenic ethnic religion (Ἑλληνικὴ ἐθνική θρησκεία), also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism (Δωδεκαθεϊσμός), or Olympianism (Ὀλυμπιανισμός), comprises various religious movements which … Regards ), The Titans (e.g., Kronos, Meter Theon, etc. Instead, we can begin to understand what an ethnos designates by looking at its etymology. One theory is that the ancient Hellenes originally called themselves Selloi, and that through time the initial sigma in Proto-Greek became aspirated in ancient Greek, turning /s/ into /h/ in initial positions. The word 'Hellenism' is derived from the word 'Hellen' which means Greek. On that note, it is important to address certain individuals who, thinking that religion and lifestyle must be separate, have come to assert that Hellenism is “not a religion, but a way of life.” This is a dangerous mistake for two reasons. ): Harvard University Press, 1979. Statement of Activities For the Year Ended December 31, 2007, "From Hellenismos to Threskia to Dodekathiesm", Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes (YSEE), Supreme Council of National Greeks America, Kalash: The Lost Tribe of Alexander the Great, Tropaion: researching ancient Greek religion, Frequently asked questions about the Ethnic Hellenic religion and tradition, Pagans fight for divine rights of old Greek gods, NPR reports on "Return of the Hellenes" movement, Letter From Greece: The Gods Return to Olympus, Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hellenism_(religion)&oldid=995533331, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2016, Articles lacking reliable references from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Professor Giorgos Dontas, president of the, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 15:43. This can be understandable to a certain degree when we find the current political situation of Greece and its inhabitants today. Malatras, Christos (2011). In today’s day and age, despite the history of Hellenism’s universalism and its wide spread from Britain to Afghanistan, with there having been Hellenes of every colour and background, and despite the fact that since the days of ancient Athens anyone could join the Hellenic ethnos so long as they underwent the Hellenizing process of paideia, there are some people who are Hellenic by genos who try to deny the religion to those born outside of the genos. Philostratus the Elder, Philostratus the Younger, and Callistratus. Another, perhaps more mystical approach, builds off of the previous example. Hellenes, Hellenic Reconstructionists, Hellenic Pagans, or by one of many other terms B.C.E. Both universal ( katholikos ) as well as an ethnikos in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E )... 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